Animal Cloning

  • Category: Science
  • Words: 999
  • Grade: 97
Animal Cloning

        The theory of being able to make a genetic copy (a clone) of another animal has been around for quite a while. But animal cloning has been a scientific breakthrough only in recent years. Through cloning and genetic engineering, scientists have been able to perform incredible medical procedures that could one day help diseased people all over the world. There are many steps involved in cloning, and many precautions must be used. Scientists have found many useful benefits to animal cloning in many areas of science, and these may one day help mankind in the future.
        In order for animal cloning to be successful, many steps are necessary. There are three common ways of cloning animals. One way is by separating the embryo. This involves taking out a fertilized ovum, waiting until a cell cultivates into four cells, separating these cells, then putting the ovum back into the animal. Each of the cells has the exact same DNA. Another way of cloning animals is nuclear transplantation (taking the cell from a fertilized ovum). This is done by taking out a fertilized ovum from an animal when nuclear splitting starts, then by using enzymes, the nucleus will be cut one by one, then a cell is taken out of an unfertilized ovum that came from a different animal and a cell from the fertilized ovum is put in to replace it, then an electrical shock is given to the unfertilized ovum so that the cell and unfertilized ovum come together to become a fertilized ovum. This ovum is put into another one of the animal so that it can give birth to the newly fertilized egg. Another common method of cloning is done by taking cells from parts of the body. First, a cell is taken from an animal, then cell is cultivated so it will become active again, then an unfertilized ovum is prepared, then a cell is taken from it and replaced by the original cell from the animal being cloned. By using electrical shock the cell and ovum come together to become fertilized, making a cloned egg. This cloned egg is inserted into an unfertilized ovum to give birth to the clone. As it can be seen, nuclear transplantation and taking cells from parts of the body are similar methods of cloning animals. The steps taken in cloning are fundamental in accuracy of the procedure.
Although many view animal cloning as a positive aspect to science, there are precautions that must be taken. First of all, cloning is very expensive. Even though it there is a wide range of differences of how much it costs depending on what is cloned, it is still very costly. Also, diseases and viruses can be transferred to the cloned animal. If an animal is cloned many times, and the animal has a virus, its clones would all carry the same virus, maybe even causing a food shortage. Ethical and moral issues should also be considered when it comes to cloning animals. Some people believe that it is not right to clone animals and humans shouldn't interfere with nature. Theses precautions must be first considered before cloning animals.
Aside from precautions involved in cloning, the uses of cloning greatly outweigh these safety measures. Cloning animals can produce more healthy animals. For example, if a cow with good milk is cloned, its clone will also have good milk. Testing done on animals can be used to help humans. For instance, researchers have been able to transfer human genes that produce useful proteins into sheep and cows, so that they produce the protein that may cure a disorder or other health conditions. Also, by obtaining DNA of animals that are soon to be extinct, scientists can clone these animals so their population will not decrease. Cloning animals can be used in many positive ways.
Animal cloning has many applications in today's scientific and medical world. The main area that cloning can be applied to is humans. By developing animal cloning techniques, results can be applied to make disease fighting drugs or natural human cells that in some people are missing. Also, animal cloning can be used to increase food supply. Cloning animals that humans eat would allow for more meat and milk products. Finally, cloning procedures could one day allow for the cloning of human beings, although much controversy still lies in this area and is a very sensitive topic for some people with strong moral or religious views.
        The future of animal cloning is not yet certain, but it can be sure that it will be further developed. In the future, it will help scientists better understand cell development, heredity, and genetic structure. Also, it can be used to produce human proteins as a "drug factory". Animals will soon be able to produce human proteins, and if these animals are cloned, the cloned animals will also possess these proteins. The gene that makes insulin, which treats diabetes, can be inserted into an animal. That animal can be cloned to increase the supply of insulin. Also, will be able to be reprogrammed to take on different functions. For example, skin cells could be taken and reprogrammed to produce a certain type of protein. Neurons (brain cells) could also be regenerated by this technique, even though normally brain cells do not replicate. These renovations and more will be applied to the cloning of animals.
        In conclusion, animal cloning animal cloning is becoming more and more prominent in today's scientific world. The whole process is young and just beginning to take flight. Science, in the past, has allowed for advances in many areas, but never in history has science be able to so deeply affect society, as animal cloning will undoubtedly do.
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