Chromosome 19

  • Category: Science
  • Words: 612
  • Grade: 100
Chromosome 19
As you can see, I have Chromosome #19. In this chromosome you find many different types of diseases. Some you may have heard of and some that you may never have heard of. The list of all of the diseases on chromosome 19 would take me days to read and explain them to you, so I just picked out a couple of them and will explain them to you.

Atherosclerosis is a disease that can affect people at any age, although it usually doesn't pose a threat until people reach their forties or fifties. It is characterized by a narrowing of the arteries caused by cholesterol-rich plaques of immune-system cells. Key risk factors for atherosclerosis, which can be genetic and/or environmental, include: elevated levels of cholesterol and high blood pressure and cigarette smoke.

A protein called apolipoprotein E, which can exist in several different forms, is coded for by a gene found on chromosome 19. It is important for removing excess cholesterol from the blood, and does so by carrying cholesterol to receptors on the surface of liver cells. Defects in apolipoprotein E sometimes result in its inability to bind to the receptors, which leads to an increase a person's blood cholesterol, and consequently their risk of atherosclerosis.

Currently, a debate is raging over how the various mutated forms of apolipoprotein E effect the body. As a result, many of the treatments proposed remain in their experimental phase. While mice are proving useful for modeling the human disease, a great deal of research is still required before we can fully understand the mechanisms that regulate the levels of lipoproteins - like apolipoprotein E - in the blood.

Myotonic dystrophy is an inherited disorder that primarily affects the muscles, nerves and digestive tract. Symptoms of the disease often appear in people in their twenties, but there is a great deal of variation in its severity and age of onset.

The disease is caused by an expanding trinucleotide repeat in the DM gene on chromosome 19. This means that each new generation has more and more repeats of the trinucleotide in their DM gene. This expansion can usually be traced through the female line, and results in a longer and longer string of the repeat. The longer the string, the more severe the symptoms: unaffected people have between 5 and 27 copies, mild sufferers have at least 50 repeats, while more severe cases can have up to a thousand or more.

Mice can be used as a model organsim for the study of this disease, since they have a similar syndrome. Through studying how it affects them we can learn how expanding trinucleotide repeats develop, and how they might be controlled. Huntington's disease is caused by a similar trinucleotide repeat, so any insight into myotonic dystrophy might also provide clues for the treatment of Huntingdon's and other similar diseases.

When we did the phamlets last week, I had Cystic Fibrosis. It so happened that Cystic Fibrosis is on Chromosome 19. The genetic disorder is located on 13.2 which is right hear. ( POINT TO IT) Chromosome 19 has the Cystic Fibrosis first stage.
Also on Chromosome # 19 you find another topic that was on someone's phamlet. That is Wilms Tumor. The entirety of this disorder is developed on 13.4 which is right here. (POINT TO IT).

Also, I am sure that you have someone in your family or that you know of that is hard of hearing or either totally deaf. Well that is an autosomal dominant inherited trait that is located on 13.1 part of Chromosome 19.

Those are a few of the diseases that are found on my Chromosome.
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